On the contrary, we find value in using it as a starting point from which to diverge dynamically, taking into account the most recent avellaneda-stoikov model behaviour. As stated in Section 4.1.7, these values for w and k are taken as the fixed parameter values for the Alpha-AS models. They are not recalibrated periodically for the Gen-AS so that their values do not differ from those used throughout the experiment in the Alpha-AS models. If w and k were different for Gen-AS and Alpha-AS, it would be hard to discern whether observed differences in the performance of the models are due to the action modifications learnt by the RL algorithm or simply the result of differing parameter optimisation values.

Top 10 Quant Professors 2022 – Rebellion Research

Top 10 Quant Professors 2022.

Posted: Thu, 13 Oct 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Interestingly, Jaimungal, Cartea and Ricci recently introduced market impact in a similar model, the market impact occurring when execution takes place. We may consider introducing a similar effect in ETC future versions of the model. The authors will try to embed them into the HJB framework used here. Likert-type scales are commonly used in both academia and industry to capture human feelings since they are user-friendly, easy-to-develop and easy-to administer. This kind of scales generate ordinal variables made up of a set of rank ordered items.

Axial-LOB: High-Frequency Trading with Axial Attention

Indeed, a trader with a lot of shares to liquidate need to trade fast to reduce price risk and will therefore propose a low price. On the contrary a trader with only a few shares in his portfolio may be willing to benefit from a trading opportunity and will send an order with a higher price because the risk he bears allows him to trade more slowly. Cartea and Jaimungal recently used a similar model to introduce risk measures for high-frequency trading. Earlier, they used a model inspired from Avellaneda-Stoikov in which the mid-price is modeled by a Hidden Markov Model.

risk aversion

In this paper, we investigated the high-frequency trading strategies for a market maker using a mean-reverting stochastic volatility models that involve the influence of both arrival and filled market orders of the underlying asset. First, we design a model with variable utilities where the effects of the jumps corresponding to the orders are introduced in returns of the asset and generate optimal bid and ask prices for trading. Then, we develop another, but novel, approach considering an underlying asset model with jumps in stochastic volatility. Such an extension allows one to fit the implied volatility smile better in GALA practice. A large proportion of market making models derive from the seminal model of Avellaneda and Stoikov.

This part intends to show the numerical experiments and the behaviour of the market maker under the results given in Sect. Similar to the proof of Proposition2, the optimal spreads can be found by the first order optimality conditions. For the case of exponential utility function, now we explore the results of optimal controls obtained by solving the HJB Eq.

Model-based gym environments for limit order book trading

The signals are determined by the approximate wealth changes during a fixed and avellaneda-stoikov modeled holding period, during which we set stop-loss and take-profit points. These settings are heterogeneous for different stocks, and we provide a method to assign the values of these hyperparameters based on the historical average ratio of the best ask to the best bid price. Furthermore, the threshold of signals can be adjusted according to investors’ risk aversion. This type of labeling closely reflects actual transactions and earnings.


Genetic algorithms compare the performance of a population of copies of a model, each with random variations, called mutations, in the values of the genes present in its chromosomes. This process of random mutation, crossover, and selection of the fittest is iterated over a number of generations, with the genetic pool gradually evolving. Finally, the best-performing model overall, with its corresponding parameter values contained in its chromosome, is retained for subsequent application to the problem at hand. In our case, it will be the AS model used as a baseline against which to compare the performance of our Alpha-AS model. The Avellaneda-Stoikov procedure underpinning the market-making actions in the models under discussion is explained in Section 2.

An interpretable intuitionistic fuzzy inference model for stock prediction

There are many different models around with varying methodologies on how to calculate the value. The model was created before Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first Bitcoin block, before the creation of trading markets that are open 24/7. On Hummingbot, the value of q is calculated based on the target inventory percentage you are aiming for. Adjust the settings by opening the strategy config file with a text editor. Whether to enable adding transaction costs to order price calculation. When placing orders, if the order’s size determined by the order price and quantity is below the exchange’s minimum order size, then the orders will not be created.

On the other hand, the performance of the Alpha-AS models on maximum drawdown varied significantly on different test days, losing to Gen-AS on over half of them, a reflection of their greater aggressiveness, made possible by their relative freedom of action. Overall, however, days of substantially better performance relative to the non-Alpha-AS models far outweigh those with poorer results, and at the end of the day the Alpha-AS models clearly achieved the best and least exposed P&L profiles. A single parent individual is selected randomly from the current population , with a selection probability proportional to the Sharpe score it has achieved (thus, higher-scoring individuals have a greater probability of passing on their genes). The chromosome of the selected individual is then extracted and a truncated Gaussian noise is applied to its genes (truncated, so that the resulting values don’t fall outside the defined intervals). The new genetic values form the chromosome of the offspring model. The Q-value iteration algorithm assumes that both the transition probability matrix and the reward matrix are known.

Therefore, we invite you to submit a revised version of the manuscript that addresses the points raised during the review process. We also plan to compare the performance of the Alpha-AS models with that of leading RL models in the literature that do not work with the Avellaneda-Stoikov procedure. On the whole, the Alpha-AS models are doing the better job at accruing gains while keeping inventory levels under control. Post-hoc Mann-Whitney tests were conducted to analyse selected pairwise differences between the models regarding these performance indicators. Table 6 compares the results of the Alpha-AS models, combined, against the two baseline models and Gen-AS. The figures represent the percentage of wins of one among the models in each group against all the models in the other group, for the corresponding performance indicator.


On this performance indicator, AS-Gen was the overall best performing model, winning on 11 days. The mean Max DD for the AS-Gen model over the entire test period was visibly the lowest , and its standard deviation was also the lowest by far from among all models. In comparison, both the mean and the standard deviation of the Max DD for the Alpha-AS models were very high.

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The Alpha-AS agent records the new market tick information by modifying the appropriate market features it keeps as part of its state representation. The agent also places one bid and one ask order in response to every tick. Once every 5 seconds, the agent records the asymmetric dampened P&L it has obtained as its reward for placing these bid and ask orders during the latest 5-second time step. Based on the market state and the agent’s private indicators (i.e., its latest inventory levels and rewards), a prediction neural network outputs an action to take. As defined above, this action consists in setting the value of the risk aversion parameter, γ, in the Avellaneda-Stoikov formula to calculate the bid and ask prices, and the skew to be applied to these. The agent will place orders at the resulting skewed bid and ask prices, once every market tick during the next 5-second time step.

  • On Hummingbot, the value of q is calculated based on the target inventory percentage you are aiming for.
  • And the only risk he faces is linked to the non-execution of his orders.
  • Risk metrics and fine tuning of high frequency trading strategies.
  • Figures in parenthesis are the number of days the Alpha-AS model in question was second best only to the other Alpha-AS model (and therefore would have computed another overall ‘win’ had it competed alone against the baseline and AS-Gen models).
  • The spread (from mid-price) to defer the order refresh process to the next cycle.
  • These models, therefore, must learn everything about the problem at hand, and the learning curve is steeper and slower to surmount than if relevant available knowledge were to be leveraged to guide them.

Table 2 shows that one or the other of the two Alpha-AS models achieved better Sharpe ratios, that is, better risk-adjusted returns, than all three baseline models on 24 (12+12) of the 30 test days. Furthermore, on 9 of the 12 days for which Alpha-AS-1 had the best Sharpe ratio, Alpha-AS-2 had the second best; conversely, there are 11 instances of Alpha-AS-1 performing second best after Alpha-AS-2. Thus, the Alpha-AS models came 1stand 2nd on 20 out of the 30 test days (67%). The AS-Gen model was a distant third, with 4 wins on Sharpe. The mean and the median of the Sharpe ratio over all test days was better for both Alpha-AS models than for the Gen-AS model , and in turn the Gen-AS model performed significantly better on Sharpe than the two non-AS baselines. The results obtained suggest avenues to explore for further improvement.

avellaneda-stoikov model

Eventually, these https://www.beaxy.com/ are integrated to formulate the Consistency Index Rank to rank cricket teams. The performance of the proposed methodology is investigated with recent state-of-the-art works and International Cricket Council rankings using the Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient for all the 3 formats of cricket, i.e., Test, One Day International , and Twenty20 . The results indicate that the proposed ranking methods yield quite more encouraging insights than the recent state-of-the-art works and can be acquired for ranking cricket teams. A closed-form solution for options with stochastic volatility with applications to bond and currency options. Topics in stochastic control with applications to algorithmic trading. PhD Thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Sciences.

First, the reward function can be tweaked to penalise drawdowns more directly. Other indicators, such as the Sortino ratio, can also be used in the reward function itself. Another approach is to explore risk management policies that include discretionary rules. Alternatively, experimenting with further layers to learn such policies autonomously may ultimately yield greater benefits, as indeed may simply altering the number of layers and neurons, or the loss functions, in the current architecture. Similarly, on the Sortino ratio, one or the other of the two Alpha-AS models performed better, that is, obtained better negative risk-adjusted returns, than all the baseline models on 25 (12+13) of the 30 days.

  • We plan to use such approximations in further tests with our RL approach.
  • Guilbaud and Pham also used a model inspired from the Avellaneda-Stoikov framework but including market orders and limit orders at best bid and ask together with stochastic spreads.
  • Moreover, the spread can also be considered to be normally distributed due to its skewness and kurtosis values.
  • To overcome this limitation and to reduce the expert’s subjectivity, in this study an adaptive membership function based on CUB model is suggested to pre-transform Likert-type variables into fuzzy numbers before the adoption of a clustering algorithm.
  • This helps the algorithm learn and improves its performance by reducing latency and memory requirements.

The models in literature assume that the stock price is followed by mostly Brownian motion with constant volatility, and in the cases of stochastic volatility, they consider only a diffusive volatility. Picking up the volatility as diffusive is highly permanent but this dynamics can allow the increments to increase only by a sequence of normally distributions. We relied on random forests to filter state-defining features based on their importance according to three indicators. Various techniques are worth exploring in future work for this purpose, such as PCA, Autoencoders, Shapley values or Cluster Feature Importance .

Should you hedge or should you wait? – Risk.net

Should you hedge or should you wait?.

Posted: Wed, 24 Aug 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

The same set of parameters obtained for the Gen-AS model are used to specify the initial Alpha-AS models. The goal with this approach is to offer a fair comparison of the former with the latter. By training with full-day backtests on real data respecting the real-time activity latencies, the models obtained are readily adaptable for use in a real market trading environment.